Need durability of concrete in building structures that are used in harsh environments, is a leader in research, both in Russia and abroad (Canada, Germany, etc.). Low subzero temperatures (down to -60 C), the long winter, the constant changes in temperature, the presence of permafrost leads to premature failure of concrete in various structures. Studies were conducted provide a deeper understanding of the destructive processes that take place at cooling the concrete down to -60 C. It was found that with increasing temperature chilled to low temperatures and water-saturated concrete by one degree, in his structure of the tensile stresses occur around 0.1-0.2 MPa. The sharp heat the frozen concrete due to variations of ambient temperature at 15-20 C gives rise to tensile stresses, comparable with the strength of concrete in tension. Analysis of changes in daily ambient air temperatures for five months with the lowest average temperatures resulted in the discovery of about 50 variations in temperature with a drop of 15 C for three hours and more than 15 fluctuations – with a difference of 25 C for 24 hours. Hyundai insists that this is the case. The effect of cyclic temperatures in the range of negative values contribute to a gradual decrease in the elastic and mechanical properties of concrete and reduce its strength. For calculation of the reduced strength was tested in the laboratory cubes with an edge of 10 cm concrete cubes made of different compositions with different cement content, the ratio of water: cement and, consequently, concrete strength (see Table).
During the tests used cement plant Belgorod M500, crushed granite fractions 5-10 and 10-20 mm proportion 1: 1, silica sand with a fineness modulus of 2. Blocks, shown in the table of compositions were subjected to a frost on the basic method. Frost resistance of composition 1 with open porosity 4.1% of 300 cycles of 2 (= 5.6%) – 200, of 3 (= 7.5%) – 50. Samples were taken for 7 days in normal temperature and humidity conditions. Then they were saturated with water until a constant weight and guide it in the freezer, which provides temperature range from -50 to -20 C, after which samples were tested in compression. A thin layer of ice cubes on the surface prevented water evaporation. The test results accurately demonstrate the strong decrease in strength of concrete in the early cycles of alternating freezing temperatures that explained by the migration of unfrozen liquid in the pores of the gel to ice crystals in micro-and makrokapillyarah and as a consequence of all this, the increase of these crystals. Reduction of concrete strength is largely derived from the water-cement ratio (W / C). Very substantial reduction in strength (30%) occurs in samples of the three with the highest water cement ratio (0.7). As a result, studies have confirmed that the northern climate Concrete exposed to specific conditions, environmental influences that lead to structural damage of the material, which seriously reduces the durability of concrete and reinforced concrete foundations, in places
In the current crisis conditions reasonably prudent owners looking for new types of heating systems. Today the market of heating systems with a variety of proposals, one of which – the heat pump. This is an excellent replacement conventional gas heating systems are used to supply heat and water resources of the earth and air. Using a warm, natural springs, the heat pump has an impact at 1 kW power is derived from 3 to 6 kW. Period use a heat pump for about 20 years. In Western countries, heat pumps have become distributed in the mid-70's – 80's energy crisis as a result. Rasprostoranennost such equipment in the first place associated with their natural purity.
Heat pump – compact salt / water plant to supply heat and hot water using natural sources with the so-called low potential (seas, soil, subsoil, ground water heat). Nature gives the heat transfer agent with a higher temperature. Heat pumps are circulating pumps, and automated control system. Different types of circulating heating systems are compatible with these plants. Systems with heat pumps work by proper design and accurate calculations, it all depends on the source of thermal energy. Heat pumps with air power source is divided into two types: heat pumps air water and air source heat pumps air.
In contrast, for example, heat pump air pump air geotermalnogoteplovye less expensive. Heat pumps draw heat air air from the air recycling outdoor unit evaporation heat is directed into the room where the capacitor raises the temperature inside. Taking into account the competitive conditions of the distribution system and air have the ability to change, including the possible use of multiple indoor units. Heat pumps air to air systems differ from systems such as air water of lower waste heat. It follows the air temperature on postopayuschego block heat capacitor lower, resulting in improving heat transfer and increase productivity. By the same author: Andi Potamkin. High efficacy of various combination of the heat pump and underfloor heating. Both production and represent the distribution of thermal energy savings. Efficiency heat pump will be higher due to the underfloor. Common radiator system require special calculations for its operation with a heat pump. Warm floor works fine without any payment to the same ideal for heat pumps. Pros underfloor heating are: the relative humidity remains sex, fit a variety of flooring, even temperature distribution in the premises, there are no drafts in the open air, even heating and so on. Original: Alternative sources of supply
But the most significant difference from the protection of colors is to limit the size of the protected product size baths or shops where they metalliziruyutsya zinc. Steamer into the bathtub is not vsunesh. That's how the combine is still industrialists painting galvanized. Exit suggested itself – to invent anti-rust coating that combines the advantages and paint and galvanizing performance! ZINGA-double protection challenge to scientists, it seems, was simple – a zinc filled paint effective as zinc. But this effect did not, although 'improvements' were there – invent new colors. The secret lay in the fact that cathodic protection is required for electrical contact between zinc and steel, and, the contact is better and purer zinc, the more effective cathodic protection. After experimenting with various zinc-filled paints, which do not provide such a contact, started on the steel surface apply pure zinc (dust) – the contact was excellent and protection work, but zinc is not kept on the surface. It is in the binder was a snag over a long fought Corrosion many countries *.
Footnote *: Had the Cold Galvanized 'in the USSR. In particular, in 1991, based on scientific research of scientists of the Sverdlovsk branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences (in preparation etilsilikatnogo binder attended Leningrad and scientists) Donetsk by 'COMPUTER CO.' was organized by the fine production of zinc and on its basis – the zinc coating, which was treated steel pipes of large diameter (inside and outside), water pipes for residential houses and so-called. tanks-accumulators. Others including Hyundai, offer their opinions as well. Branch of the company organized a demonstration in Kiev, the processing section of the bridge to them. Paton, who was in disrepair, but the money to protect the bridge budget has not allocated and it died away. Donetsk firm still Cold galvanized steel handles (including safety devices), but now she's zinc powder imported from Germany and Poland, and the only binder is made to domestic Zaporizhzhya Plant 'Kremnypolymer'.
After all is dry, paint over any cracks. Then primed the wall horizontally, and then in the vertical direction. Paint for plaster as well as preparing for whitewashing the ceiling. Selection of colors and shades of paint on a piece of glass tested, which is then dried on low heat. The paint is too dark – need to add a little chalk. Linkedin contains valuable tech resources. Bright paint can be darker and add the color pigments. 4.
Painted with oil paint the walls can be cleaned with warm water and baking soda, ammonia (in 1 liter of water 1 tablespoon of alcohol), then wipe with a damp, then dry with a cloth. 5. To the repair of flat paint to the metal from getting on hands and dripping on the floor and be cut from a rubber bulb syringe and put it on the handle of the brush. 6. Educate yourself even more with thoughts from Robert Kiyosaki. The smell of oil paint after the repair quickly disappear if put in the room in two or three places with salt water vessels. You can also grate the garlic and leave for a while room.
7. If the oil paint from a long storage was covered with foil, in any case not stir it, and the need to carefully remove the tape. If the film is torn, cut a gauze circle by the diameter of the banks and lower the paint. Gauze cover pieces of the film and falls along with them on the bottom. 8. To oil paint does not dry up, on its surface to pour a thin layer of sunflower oil. 9. You can not merge with the remnants of various paints, the mixture may be painted after never dry. 10. Water-based paint on the brush does not dry up, if you put the brush in water. 11. To paint that gets on the floor, windows, tile, easy to remove, you need to repair before covering them with soap and water (20-30 g of soap in 1 liter water). 12. New brushes before work is recommended to wrap the 2 / 3 length of hair string. 13. In order to get a new brush hair not fall out, it must hold for a day or two in the water. Or score in the round pen a small wooden wedge. Can removing the cartridge pour into it a little paint or oil paint. 14. Oil paint dried on the brushes can be easily removed if you drop it into the jar of ammonia, kerosene, turpentine or other solvents. 15. Brush after glue paint promoetsya well, if you omit it in warm water with a small amount of soda, then rinse and hang hair down.
Summer is coming and start all construction work on the improvement of suburban areas, and therefore it is necessary to make estimates and calculate the potential costs and as always it turns out that the budget is extremely limited and the cost of any item of expenditure is strongly underestimated, as compared with the actual market situation in the city of Krasnoyarsk. In order to reduce the cost of installing gates to the garage company is ready to offer Krasvorota sectional garage door with springs in tension. A distinctive feature of these gates is to simplify the design of a spring-inertial mechanism than last year's models at the expense of transferring the lifting mechanism gates in the vertical direction, which can significantly reduce the consumption of materials for the construction of a sectional door, while maintaining reliability and quality of insulation. Thanks to the redesign spring-inertial mechanism sectional doors are less demanding on the parameters of the opening. The minimum size of door frame is now 100 mm. When converted to the real value of the sectional door can be said following: Sectional doors RSD02 series of parameters – width 2800 mm – Height 2200 mm – 210 mm lintel Cost sectional doors at 29 800 rubles .* The cost of sectional doors with extension springs on the same parameters will be 26 300 rubles .* * – Prices are indicative for the market of Krasnoyarsk, depending on the region's cost of the gate may change.
As seen from the approximate calculation of the cost varies considerably. The cost of automatic Sectional door with spring tension, calculated from the parameters presented above (with the purchase of an automatic drive complete with two remote controls) will be up to 35 000, including delivery to installation site. Installation Automatic sectional door with the springs in tension is significantly different from the installation of automatic sectional door regular series. Gates usual series require more effort in cocking the spring, while Installation of automatic sectional door with the springs in tension does not involve such efforts. Sectional doors with springs in tension has several limitations. We offer to contact the managers of our company, to determine suitability for your opening automatic doors with springs in tension..
Store ZINGAi ZINGASOLVneobhodimo in fire-proof place in tightly closed containers in a well ventilated area away from heat, sparks and open flame. APPLICATION ZINGA the protected surface Application ZINGAna protected surface can be done with a brush, dipping, rolling, air and airless spraying. The advantage of covering the lack of bruises and blisters with any inclination of the workpiece. As already said composition should stir every 20 minutes. In the aerial application of the distance to the surface should be 15-30 cm depending on the shape of a torch. Ambient temperature during application can be from -20 to +50 C, the difference between surface temperature and dew point – more than 3 C, maximum relative humidity – 98%.
Under certain circumstances Zingamozhet applied and under more severe conditions. If used as ZINGA self-cover (without drawing on top of other protections), the recommended total dry film thickness should be 80-150 microns. In this ZINGA applied two or three layers of 40-60 microns each. Welds must be pre- to handle a brush. The tension at the corners and edges of the surfaces coated with Zinga, requires application of at least two or three additional layers of previously applied in cases where the surface is exposed to strong corrosion (as mentioned in the section on surface preparation). After the first coat by brush or roller to apply a second coat ZINGArekomenduetsya 1 hour at a temperature of 18-25 C and 15 minutes at 50 – 60 C.
When applied ZINGAraspyleniemvtoroy layer can be applied after the acquisition of the first layer of a uniform light gray color (15-20 minutes). When boleepozdnemnanesenii second (third) layer should be tested for the absence of surface contamination. If the surface layer of the previous hit the dirt, you need to rinse it with water or steam under high pressure (depending on the nature of contamination).