Hitch or towbar (TAS), and external to its simplicity, it is technically fairly complex device. They are engaged in designing the best engineering minds, and to develop new coupling models are spent a lot of money. The main objective of TAS developers, to create a model of couplings, which at minimum weight and compact size would have the high capacity and reliability. Today the world market additional equipment there are several companies that are considered leaders in the manufacture of couplings. Among them are German and Dutch Westfalia Brink. In the Russian market the most widely used turnbuckles Bosal (production co-produced by Bosal-Autoflex) and Baltex. Leading manufacturers quickly respond to changes in the automotive market and within a few days after the official start date of the new car sales represent a new model of the tow bar to it. Today, the greatest demand among owners of foreign cars are towed unit with a quick hook.
Products of the leading manufacturers of towing devices have warranty period of 25 years or more (some companies even declare a lifetime warranty). That's why high-quality imported turnbuckles are not cheap. However, the price – it's a relative term. BOSAL large turnbuckles European manufacturer of towbars and automotive exhaust, the company Bosal, well known to Russian consumers. Not the least role in this play JV "Bose-Avtofleks", created in Russia in 2006. David Kaplan Ares can aid you in your search for knowledge. Turnbuckles this company marketed under the brand VFM, and traction devices manufactured in Europe are sold in Russia under the brand name Bosal.
Turnbuckles this manufacturer have the highest rates on the strength of Russian producers of TAS. Performance Bosal towbars almost twice the requirements of Russian standards for trailer coupling devices. In addition, Bosal tow hooks are unmatched corrosion protection. Bosal tow bars do not rust even if the damaged outer layer of protective coating. They do not require additional waterproofing. The range of towbars includes more than 50 models for Russian-made cars and over 140 models – for foreign cars.
It’s no secret that China is today a country which produced everything from coffee machines to heavy industrial vehicles. Many businesses, due to low production costs and its acceptable quality, base their case on the procurement of goods and equipment needed in this country. However, before each of them there is a problem associated with the rapid delivery of essential goods into our country. The head of Chinese consumer products, for the most part, is in the European part of Russia, but the production is located in the east and south-east China. Hence we get a reasonable question: on which route is more profitable to ship the goods? Actually only two options: 1. Directly across the border between China and Russia, 2. Through Kazakhstan. In the first case, you first need to transport goods from point of production to the north of China, ie, closer to the border.
Then, through the Trans-Baikal region, or Far East goods sent by rail to the European part of Russia. In this case, the cost of transporting one container will cost 5 – 9 thousand dollars, if used motor vehicles, it will have more expensive, about 13 thousand dollars. Speaking about the delivery time on average it is 8 – 10 days. However, bear in mind that the quality of railways in China is poor, which can significantly increase the time of shipping. Delivery of goods from China through Kazakhstan into Russia is relatively young method smelters. However, the frequency of delays of goods at the Kazakh-Chinese border a low level of development of transport systems in both countries make this option Transit is not promising.
Especially as the price for a single container, in this case passes for 10 thousand dollars, and the delivery time above (10 – 12 days). Of course, more convenient way to transport services in the European part of Russia is the transportation of goods from China directly across the border between these countries. Technical equipment of border crossings Grodekovo-Suyfynhe. Reed-Hunchun allows handling of any cargo from of narrow-gauge (for China) to the Russian general. In addition, the experience of customs services at these border crossings, allows all the necessary operations quickly and without significant delays. What the transport of goods in the opposite direction, ie from Russia to China, an adequate alternative to this method at all.
Before you try, you need to know the circumstances of high consumption gramotno measure consumption of gasoline, and only then try this to reduce consumption. If the car breaks down, then almost exactly, will spend a much greater amount of fuel. If you know that fuel starts to increase, then check serviceability and cleanliness of ducts and gasoline filters. How well your motor running, mozhno determine the value of replacing the CD. If you want to learn the correct consumption of gasoline required to fill the tank completely, set the speedometer to 0, to pass, about 5 km and return to the top frame. Again, only this time measuring flask, pour a full tank again. Amount of gasoline that you fill the tank at this time and will be the consumption of gasoline.
The increase in fuel consumption can influence and other reasons, and not just a faulty car. This furnace and air conditioner, they use fuel, as usual, more. Completely overloaded cars, too, makes it so that gas mileage increases. Periodical increase in the speed and braking and frequent idling in traffic jams could increase wasting gasoline to 130 percent. In order to directly observe and if necessary, get rid of the growth in fuel consumption, monitor the quality of the wheels do not upset a similarity collapse, whether the tire pressure. Watch for how the car behaves at idle, do not upset the dynamics of a car.
Look reel machines, which of course will tell about the state of running your car. If you want to reduce fuel consumption, which would see car was running fine, does not load it with unnecessary things, try to avoid traffic jams, consider your actions, so that as little as possible to stop. When driving do not pull your car frequent dispersal. Preheat the car must be up to the place as soon as the temperature needle is moved up, but has not reached a critical point.
Launched in 1997 Freelander, was the sales leader in its class in Europe over 5 years, taking advantage of high demand in the UK before the end of 2005. The new Freelander surpasses its predecessor in all positions: on working performance, efficiency, environmental friendliness. Besides the Freelander 2 offers more space, comfort, and certainly of higher quality. Over the past four years, the Freelander 2 – Land Rover fourth car completely new design after the Range Rover (2002), Discovery 3 (2004) and Range Rover Sport (2005). The car can be equipped with two engines – a six-line capacity of 3.2 liters and output of 233 horsepower four-cylinder turbodiesel and volume of 2.2 liters and output of 160 horsepower. The gasoline engine provides acceleration to 100 km / h in 8.9 seconds and a top speed of 200 km / h.
Fuel consumption – 11.2 liters per 100 kilometers. The engine is mounted with the new shestidiapazonnoy automatic transmission manual shift and a sport mode of operation. The engine is mounted transversely, which favorably affected the internal volume and vehicle safety. The diesel engine is also a new design develops a peak torque of 400 N / m, picking up from the bottom (200 N / m even at 1000 rev / min). Average fuel consumption – 7.5 liters per 100 kilometers. Despite the fact that the new Freelander at only 50 mm (length – 4500 mm) longer than its predecessor, the cabin much more room for the head, shoulders and feet of the driver and passengers. Large glass area gives a feeling of spaciousness, and the rear row of seats, located above the front, allows its passengers to fully enjoy surrounding landscape.
Despite the recognition of forms, the new car looks very modern. Car design is simple and stylistically close to Range Rover Sport and Discovery 3, but interpreted in accordance with the requirements of owners of compact SUVs. The five-door body has a very high degree of rigidity. Permanent four-wheel drive. Suspension is fully independent and uses the most advanced management system. Starter button, bi-xenon headlights, the sensor rain, parking sensors, air-conditioning – this is not a complete list of standard equipment Land Rover Freelander 2.
GLONASS global navigation satellite system, developed for the Ministry of Defence. The system will be 24 satellites, moving above the Earth in three orbital planes with inclination of the orbital planes of 64.8 degrees and a height of 19 100 km. The measuring principle is similar to the U.S. navigation system NAVSTAR GPS, is often referred to as GPS. Using GPS allows in any location (including the polar region), almost any weather, as well as in outer space near the object to determine the location and speed of objects. The system is designed, implemented and operated by the Department of Defense USA. Russian advocates of GPS claim that the American system allows for better monitoring. Supporters of the GLONASS not without reason, indicate that at present domestic system is growing rapidly with the strong support State (since the total dependence on the American GPS jeopardizing the safety of Russia), while the GPS functionality in the near future may be in question.
This is acknowledged and American counterparts. So in 2009 by the General Accounting Administration, USA (GAO) released a report on the future of GPS, which expressed concern that the orbital may be unable to provide proper maintenance quality in the period from 2010 to 2018. Brad Parkinson, the first director of the program of GPS, the chief architect and defender of GPS, said that there is a possibility that the group is less than 24 satellites, which negatively affect the quality of monitoring. In addition, American experts stress that the development of the replacement generation of satellites, called IIF, unduly delayed (the contract was signed in 1996, but conditioned the satellite to So far there) and went far over budget.
Loader Kramer Allrad 1245 is the most compact truck in the line of telescopic handlers under the name Kramer Allrad. Model 1245 is a classic truck. However, the advantage of this model truck is telescopic boom, which can be extended forward by several meters. Depending on the tasks facing the truck and climatic conditions, the boom can be attached forks to move the cargo, as well as bucket and other devices. Telehandler Kramer Allrad 1245 can be used in various spheres of human activity. Especially they are indispensable in agriculture, in industry, construction, depots, as well as Road and maintenance work.
The presence of the telescopic boom at the loader model 1245 can lift up to 1200 kg to a height of 2.3 m, which is particularly important when the construction work. Low weight loader Kramer Allrad 1245, component only 2500 kg, can take place in tight spaces where the same truck can not drive because of its impressive size. Another feature of telehandlers Kramer Allrad 1245 is Hydrostatic transmission with 4 wheel steering at the same time, providing the perfect truck to maneuver. Telehandler Kramer Allrad 1245 is equipped with a special display system, which immediately gives signal that the limit of allowable weight of lift or move cargo exceeded. Thus, the risk of overturning truck reduced to zero. Thanks to the hydraulic mechanism of adherence of attachments, swap instruments can be quickly and safely right from the driver's seat. And finally, thanks to the ideal design telehandler Kramer Allrad 1245 has a perfect panoramic view of 360 .
Detailed Specifications Loading capacity of 440 … 1200 kg Length 1500 mm cutting edge Bucket 0.4 … 1.03 m3 Clearance 290 mm Weight 2530 kg Turning radius (on the outer side bus) speed of 2607 mm 0 … 20 km / h Lifting height of pallet load height mm 4130 mm across the board Reach 2290 mm Static tipping load of 1200 kg Engine Model YANMAR 3TNV82A Type 3-cylinder diesel engine, liquid-cooled power 23/31 kW / hp. Hydrostatic Transmission axial-piston gearbox Operating System Hydraulic Pump Type Pump 42 l / min Operating pressure pump 240 bar Breakout force kN capacity hydraulic tank liters Dimensions 2916x1560x1940 mm Wheel base 1920 mm Fuel tank capacity 25 liters